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Author Topic: CIS Navy on HF  (Read 1138 times)

Online Josh

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CIS Navy on HF
« on: May 31, 2019, 1727 UTC »
Not to leave CIS Navy out;

RAL2 with its stations RLM2, RKA2, RBL70, RHQ2, RMW2, RGH2, RHW2, RAI2, RDU2, RIB2, RLO2, RBL62, RKY2 and RBY45 always has been assigned to the CIS Navy. It might be operated by the RUS Navy in Kaliningrad (SLB "P").

Sessions are closed with "ZNN ZNN sk sk" by the NCS; radio checks after day/night frequency change, at least 14 stations involved, if one c/s used per station. Pool of frequencies: 14975, 13975, 10425, 7861, 6989, 5797, 4979 and 4051. First heard 1997. Exchanging few messages and xxx messages, other mode is MS-5 12 ch. PSK Voice Encryption.


 CIS Navy CW qrgs
Fleet wide primary freqs are 8345 at night (Presumed Moscow in darkness 1800z to 0600z) and 12464 during the day. However there are many regional frequencies that are used, and are being more used than primaries these days

8348 is a primary Pacific fleet frequency which may propagate to the US, also try:
3594 4048 4190 5233 5411 5142 6240 6242 6989 7630 7632 9142 10203 10834 10834 13636 13907 18373

Often, traffic passing is preceded by tuning procedures composed of a series of VVV.

Callsigns CW Stations:
RCV Navy HQ Sevastopol
REA4 Airforce HQ Moscow
RIT Navy HQ Severomorsk North Fleet
RJS Navy HQ Vladivostok
RIW Navy HQ Moscow
RMP Navy HQ Kaliningrad
RMxx Warship

Rezim-A In Clear Voice
Rezim-B Green Using Yakta
Vpiriom Over to you

QBE Closing
QCM Broken
QCM QYT6 MS5 Link is Broken Please Fix it.
QRD Where are you going to/I am going to
QRP Decrease Power
QRX xxxxx Link xxxxx ???
QSA? Whats your Strength of Signal 2?
QSA2 Strength Of Signal is 3
QYT6 QBE Closes MS5 Link
QYT6 MS5 Link

CIS Forces often use Z and Q codes with much the same meaning as NATO Z and Q codes.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(Sx) : for Simplex - xxxxx : Frequency not known

_*traffic - every day :*_

FRQ Day - *xxxxx*   - *11165*   - *12464*   - *11000*   - *10543*
Stations - *RAA* *RIT* *ALL SS*   - *RIW*    - *RCV*
FRQ Night - *xxxxx*   - *xxxxx* *0**8345*   - *xxxxx*    - *xxxxx*

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
_**_Other frequencies (since 1 January 2014) : The HQ_*

RAA :   14587(Sx)    12692 (Sx)    10795
RCV :   19201    13971 (Sx)    10309 (Sx)    08139    08014    07763
(Sx)    05916    05776    05736    05224    05094 (Sx)    03797
RDL :   22864    16912    14664    10452    08136
RIW :   14556 (Sx)    12056 (Sx)    10540 (Sx)    07665    07664
RMP :  21438    12692 (Sx)    06832    05881    05775   04079 007
RJS :    16112
RIT :    12753    11155    06877    05443
RCB :   08816    05808    06877   05443

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
_*Other frequencies (since 1 January 2014) : Networks Simplex - the out stations*_
Frq:      Calls :
08020    RJE65    RJP24    RIR99
07861    RAL2    RFH2     RDU2     RHW2     RBL71
07815    RMW32     RMW36    RMW46
07786    RAL65    RHY73    RBDE    RMGB
06989    RAL2    RHQJ    RGH2     RMW2     RBL66
06957    RMW46     RGR97     RGR98     RGR88     RGR82     RGR85  RGR92
06836    RGR89    RGR90    RGR91    RGR94    RMW46
05823    RAL2    RKA2     RLO2     RBL70
05770     RWI2     RGY2     RHK6
05018    RJE65    RJP24
03353    RJP54    RJP54    RMJA    RMUW    REL5    REL5
03337    RMGZ    RJP54

Russian MX CW Beacon Clusters:
3334.9 L-Marker St.Petersburg
3593.9 S-Marker Arkhangelsk
3594.0 C-Marker Moscow
3658.0 V-Marker Khiva-Abad Turkmenistan
4042.0 P-Marker Kaliningrad
4325.8 R-Marker Izhevsk/Ustinov
5153.8 P-Marker Kaliningrad
5153.9 S-Marker Arkhangelsk
5154.0 C-Marker Moscow
7038.8 P-Marker Kaliningrad
7038.9 S-Marker Arkhangelsk
7039.0 C-Marker Moscow
8494.8 P-Marker Kaliningrad
8495.0 C-Marker Moscow
10307.2 10528.0
10871.8 P-Marker Kaliningrad
10871.9 S-Marker Arkhangelsk
10872.0 C-Marker Moscow
13527.8 P-Marker Kaliningrad
13527.9 S-Marker Arkhangelsk
13528.0 C-Marker Moscow
13528.2 F-Marker Vladivostok
16331.8 P-Marker Kaliningrad
16331.9 S-Marker Arkhangelsk
16332.0 C-Marker Moscow
20047.9 S-Marker Arkhangelsk
20048.0 C-Marker Moscow

C Moscow
F Vladivostok
L St.Petersburg
P Kaliningrad
R Ustinov
S Arkhangelsk
V Tashkent

CIS AF/Navy HF Comms
Voice Freqs: all USB
"Long Range Aviation" generally means Tu95 and Tu22 bombers of the respective service

4040.0 Russian Pacific Fleet
4625.0 ?
4672.0 Vologda Control
5596.0 Vorkuta, Amderma, Il'men, Arkhangelsk, Pechora, Syvkar (Syktyvkar) & NaryanMar
5617.0 Long Range Aviation
5628.0 Long Range Aviation
5635.0 Long Range Aviation
5700.0 Military Transport Aviation (VTA) (Apr 2018)
5833.0 Long Range Aviation
5851.0 Russian Naval Air
6296.5 ?
6685.0 Military Transport Aviation (VTA)(secondary)
6689.0 Long Range Aviation (Pacific area)
6749.0 Military Transport Aviation (VTA)
6757.0 Ukrainian Air Force
8033.0 Long Range Aviation (Sep-Oct) Bears, Tu22, etc
8090.0 Long Range Aviation (Oct-Apr)
8131.0 Long Range Aviation (Nov-Feb)
08160.0 Baltic Fleet?
8192.0 Russian Pacific Fleet
8237.0 Russian Mediterranean Flotilla
8252.0 poss Russian AF
8294.0 Russian Pacific Fleet
8297.0 Russian Pacific Fleet
8439.0 Russian Pacific Fleet
8847.0 Military Transport Aviation (Dec 2013)
8459.0 Baltic Fleet?
8884.0 Long Range Aviation (Pacific area)
8909.0 Long Range Aviation (May-Sep)
#8950.0 Murmansk Control
10984.0 Russian Black Sea Fleet
11190.0 Ukrainian Air Force
#11193.0 Moscow Radio
#11198.0 Khabarovsk Radio
11200.0 Long Range Aviation-winter freq #170
11223.0 Long Range Aviation reserve
11354.0 Russian Naval Aviation
11360.0 Military Transport Aviation -primary
11362.0 Military Transport Aviation
11370.0 Long Range Aviation TU-95s
#11390.0 Murmansk Control
#15024.0 Moscow Radio
18030.0 Military Transport Aviation

#Russian military aircraft will occasionally use Moscow Radio & Murmansk Radio

?Not positively identified

Russian Naval Air Transport Net
Stations: RJF94......Central Sector Station, Moscow (PRIBOJ)
          RJC38......Northern Sector Station, Murmansk (NOVATOR)
          RJC48......Southern Sector Station, Sevastopol (NORKA)
          RCH84......Eastern Sector Station, Vladivostok (MONOLOG)
          RCB........Western Sector Station (KRAKET), Kaliningrad
          Aircraft...Four figures


Coast Radio Stations:
4357 Ryga Radio
8293 Radio
8294 Ryga Radio
8297 Klaipeda Radio
8770 Radio
8773 Kaliningrad Radio
13086 Ryga Radio
13197 Odessa Radio

Meteo Stations:
3690.0 Tashkent Meteo FAX
4318.0 Moscow Meteo FAX
4560.0 Irkutsk Meteo Baudot RKR74
5108.0 Moscow Meteo FAX
9348.0 Tashkent Meteo FAX RCH72
14983.0 Tashkent Meteo FAX RBV76

Callsign Lists:
ADJEK-06 Unknown
ARBAD Moscow CIV Aero
ARBAD-63 Unknown
AVRORA Unknown CIV Aero
C Moscow Navy Marker
CENTRE Unknown
COSMO Unknown
D Unknown/Obsolete
DAIHATJ-59 Unknown
F Vladivostok Navy Marker
GOY-2 Unknown
K Unknown/Obsolete
KRAKJET Unknown Airforce Operator
KRASJETJ-79 Unknown
L St.Petersburg Navy Marker
NAVATER Unknown Airforce Operator
O Unknown/Obsolete
P Kaliningrad Navy Marker
PAROS-XX Unknown
PIWON-24 Unknown
PLAVETS-41 Unknown Navy Operator
POBED-01 Unknown
PRAWA-82 Unknown Right ?
PRIBOY Unknown Airforce Operator
R Izhevsk/Ustinov Navy Marker
RADAN St.Petersburg CIV Aero
RBV-76 Tashkent Meteo
RCH-72 Tashkent Meteo
RCV Navy HQ Sevastopol
REA-4 Airforce HQ Moscow
REO Unknown
RIT Navy North Fleet HQ Severomorsk
RIW Navy HQ Moscow
RKR-74 Irkutsk Meteo
RMHW Warship Unknown
RMMA Warship Unknown
RMP Navy HQ Kaliningrad
ROMAN-XX Unknown
ROTOR-35 Unknown Navy Operator
S Arkhangelsk Navy Marker
SKORA Unknown CIV Aero
T Unknown/Obsolete
TRUAS Unknown CIV Aero
URO Diplostation Tripolis?
UXW Diplostation London?
V Khiva-Abad Navy Marker
VORMET Unknown Airforce Operator
WQL Diplostation Unknown
Y Unknown/Obsolete
ZAPAT-_9 Unknown

Conveniently located near Vincennes Indiana.

Online Josh

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Re: CIS Navy on HF
« Reply #1 on: June 01, 2019, 2008 UTC »
Much traffic generated on CIS naval nets is comprised of position and local weather reporting, they seem to follow the reporting guidelines in this publication;

Conveniently located near Vincennes Indiana.

Online Josh

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Re: CIS Navy on HF
« Reply #2 on: June 07, 2019, 1757 UTC »
Conveniently located near Vincennes Indiana.

Online Josh

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Re: CIS Navy on HF
« Reply #3 on: July 10, 2019, 0812 UTC »
CIS NAVY Meteo Callsigns
Consider Flot to mean fleet or flotilla.

 Example Hydrographic traffic           
 "RKB91 605 16 22 1000 605 = SML FOR RJH45 RJD38 =
 22061 99572 10081 41598 43408 10004 40110 51024 70202 8////
 22252 00140 22012 = + RKB91"

 RKB91 = callsign (???91) – Altay Class Tanker “Kola”
 605 = message number
 16 = number of groups in message
 22 = date
 1000 = Moscow time (this was sent at 0600z, but there’s now a three hour time  difference between Moscow and UTC)
 605 = repeat of message number
 SML = Message priority, in this case SML stands for Samolet (fighter jet) –  normal priority
 FOR = for
 RJH45 RJD38 = Hydrographic station callsigns

 The next two lines are the FM-13 message giving the weather at the site of  the observation. The link to the codebook will give you further information,  but the parts we are most interested in are the first three groups:
 22061 = 22 (date), 06 (0600z) 1 (1st FM-13 message of the hour)
 99572 = 99 (latitude), 572 (57.2N)
 10081 = 10 (Longitude – East), 081 (08.1)
 The final group we’re interested in is:
 22252 = 222 (heading speed), 5 (heading SW), 2 (6 to10kts)

 The last number group and the callsign repeat is part of the Russian message  system again – 22012 confirming that there’s 12 groups of numbers in the  message and the date, in this case the 22nd.

 From this then the message translates to an observation position of – 57.2N  08.1E heading SW @ 6-10kts, just off the North Western coast of Denmark

 Hydrographic messages are normally sent every six hours – 0600z, 1200z, 1800z  and 0000z.

With the above in mind, радиолюбители (radio hobbyists) can track CIS Naval assets from port to patrol area.

Commonly active CIS Naval Base freqs
8460 kHz RMP Baltic Fleet HQ at Kaliningrad
3395.5 Sevastopol (simplex) c/s RCV
4079 Kaliningrad (duplex) c/s RMP
4376.5 White Sea area ships calling Severodvinsk (duplex)
4635 White Sea area ships calling Severodvinsk (duplex)
5411 Vladivostok (duplex) c/s RJS
8120 Navy HQ St. Petersburg (simplex) c/s RAA
8345 Ship night primary (duplex)
8348 Pacific Fleet ship primary (duplex)
9145 Moscow (duplex) c/s RIW
11000 Moscow (duplex) c/s RIW
11155 Severomorsk (duplex) c/s RIT
12464 Ship day primary (duplex)
14556 Moscow (duplex) c/s RIW
19201 Sevastopol (weather/nav warnings) c/s RCV

White Sea:

Caspian Sea
3877.5 Simplex

CIS Naval callsign convention
Most calls; ship, shore, or air, start with R.
Aircraft seem to have a random 3/4/5F call after the R regardless of their home base.
Afloat units do not have calls related to their fleet; for example, Northern Fleet units from Murmansk do not prefix their calls with RJD.

Submarine units don't have known given calls ota on hf, as subs mostly use laser/satcomm buoys with, presumably, Akula as backup. That being said, Akula is also used for recon/int work by afloat units (AGI) so not every Akula sig's going to be a sub.

The CIS AGI class of ships (remember the USS Pueblo?) do not send hf cw weather/position reports unlike other CIS afloat units, I presume they have laser/satcoms as well as Akula just like the subs. As most USN task forces grow their own CIS AGI tail and there seem to be continuous CIS AGI haunting NATO and USN naval bases, their position is known to USN regardless if they send on hf, the NATO/USN radio traffic they intercept is likely sent by laser/satcom to RAA and Moscow. There may be more than one AGI tailing USN forces, or near Cape Kennedy when rocket launches are to take place as missile telemetry is a high priority target for AGI ships of any nation.

 Also while CIS forces use Cyrillic morse, they use a lot of Q and Z codes with the same meaning Q and Z codes have in the west.

Sometimes afloat units will bypass their HQ and contact Moscow directly. This may be due to propagation not favoring  HQ or by command. Likewise, afloat and airborne units have freqs they guard that are a hotline from Moscow for flash messages, as well as their HQ freq. It's not uncommon for various HQ or even afloat/airborne units to relay comms from units that aren't organic to that command.

CIS Naval forces have some 600 known HF freqs in use, you can find a list at udxf or elsewhere but units are presumed to be frequency agile and can pop up anywhere.

CIS Naval messaging has a hierarchy like most other military message systems;
“Monolith” (mnl), Flash (XXX in CIS Naval cw)
“air” (vzd), Immediate
“Rocket” (rkt), Priority
“aircraft”, (sml) Routine

As to modes mentioned in CIS Naval cw comms
QSU1 = USB voice
QYT9 = 75 Bd 200 Hz, fixed stations
QYT4 = OFDM 12 Channel psk data/encrypted voice, vessels
CIS Naval cw is often part of CIS Naval digital bcasts for setup and takedown of links, typically BFSK T600 modems, with the cw being created by employing a single tone of the BFSK pair as the cw carrier. I presume the modem traffic from land units is along the lines of the NATO/USN BRASS S4285 and 50/75Bd FSK bcasts.

RDL is generally believed to be a collective address to "all CIS nuclear strategic forces"

Main Russian Naval radio centers / callsigns in Rossii and English

Globus (Global Network)

RIW / RJE56 / Progress
This station gets input from all other HQ, while lower commands get input from their respective afloat units.
This is the seat of political command.

St. Petersburg National Defence Control Center
Russian Naval C3 center, base component is RJC66
This is Russian Navy HQ. All lower HQ and afloat/airborne units send to this station as SOP but those stations can and do bypass HQ and send direct to Moscow when tasked or when unable to raise HQ or get a relay to HQ. Certain priority traffic (Akula reception, typically meaning a sub or AGI) is simultaneously sent on to RIW via all means available, cw, fsk, land line, etc. Submarine related traffic has highest priority in CIS Naval comms.

Okean (Ocean Network)

HQ Calls and locations
Severomorsk RIT
Kaliningrad RMP
Sevastopol RCV
Astrakhan RJD52
Vladivostok RJS

Northern Fleet
(Arctic regions, North Atlantic Ocean, North sea, Norwegian Sea, white Sea, Northern inland waterways)
Severomorsk / RIT (+ RJH57) / Wolfram
Severodvinsk  / RJD99 / Swetok, "Flower"
Iokanga / Jagernaja / Ostrovnoj / Gremikha / Murmansk / RJD80 / Svetlana
Polyarny / RIR2 / Priroda, "Nature"
Murmansk   / RJD56 / FlĂger, "Vane"
The Northern Fleet has also been tasked with Arctic Joint Strategic Command. This arctic activity is going to increase greatly in the next decades as Russia is spending billions on revitalising/modernising old bases as well as building new ones. Increases in personnel are likewise taking place as Moscow stakes claim to vast natural resources and the military advantages of an arctic position. We might expect to see more NATO and US activity in this region to counter the perceived threat.

Baltic Fleet
(Baltic Sea, North sea, English Channel, Inland waterways)
Kaliningrad / RMP (+RJD71) / Westnik, "Herald", "Messenger"
St. Petersburg  / RJD85  / Skakun, "Race horse", "Jumper"
Baltiysk   / RJD69 / Iskatelx, "Seeker"

Black Sea Fleet
(Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Caspian Sea, Red Sea, inland waterways)
Sevastopol / RCV  / Gwozdika, "Cloves"
Novorossiysk  / RJE65 / Topolx, "White Poplar"

Caspian Flotilla
(Caspian Sea, inland waterways)
Astrakhan / RJD52 / Zazor, "Clearance" or poss "Gap"

Pacific Fleet
(North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Oceans, Bering Sea, inland waterways)
Vladivostok / RJS / Grejder "Grader"
Vladivostok / RJC60 / Ăśrist "Lawyer (Jurist)"
Strelok aka Pavlovsk Bay  / RJD97 / Ă–jnara "Sycamore"
Petropavlomsk Kamchatskiy / RCC  / Dekanat "Deanery (Deans office)"
Sowgwanx aka Sovjetskaya Gavan / RJD93 / Flejta "Flute"

Indian Ocean
(Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, inland waterways)
Bishkek  / RJH25 / Sibirak "Siberian"

Other CIS Navy bases such as training, hydrographic, testing;

Khabarovsk (Vladimirovka)
RAB99 / Gerkules (h is pronounced g in Rossii)

TX/RX site

Comms center/time signal authority

Chaldovar, KZ (Karabalta)
RJH66 / Marevo
Comms center/time signal authority

Vileyka, BLR
Comms center/time signal authority

Arkhangelsk (VOZHDORMA)
Comms center/time signal authority

Nizhniy Novgorod
Comms center/time signal authority

Comms center/time signal authority

RIQ88 is an unid land station in control of a transport aircraft network.
8816 seems to be their primary ops channel with 7932 as backup/emergency, monitored traffic is often in contact with Moscow RJF94 and/or Vladivostok RCH84

Don't expect to hear littoral operations, tugs, repair ships, etc on hf as they will likely be using v/uhf.

Monitoring Russians afloat was perhaps more interesting and easy back in the days when there was an insane amount of Russian Merchant Marine traffic on hf.
No matter what time of day, you could find some poor faktori/akademik/ryba ship sending messages back home for crew or admin even when the bands were dead. They used cw, but much traffic was in the form of radiogramma, radiograms, sent via BFSK SITOR. If you had a PK232 with the SIAM rom you could copy in 3rd shift Cyrillic if you wanted, I did sometimes but much more often simply used ITA2. In ITA2 mode, Russian words would in many cases almost be translated into something an English speaker could understand, and could follow the message gist. If it was a kryptogrammy being sent, it was 5F groups so don't waste your time.

One always kept in mind that being a totalitarian state, every soviet merchant ship was a military vessel, kinda like how most soviet airliners had jumpseats for paratroopers. "Trawlers" were often festooned with myriad m/h/v/uhf antennae, sure they had to fish, but the kgb/gru crew members ran the elint gear below decks trolling for signals while the rest of the crew cast nets.

This every trawler = a CIS AGI mentality pissed off a lot of the five eyes units tasked with monitoring every Russian ship afloat, no matter how small and/or boring its activity.
But NSA had to have the data, knowing that if it rated a trawler it was obviously something the soviets were interested in, thus something NSA was interested in.

Hard to imagine the fortune and lives spent on this crap.

I must admit SITOR worked pretty good for the most part and seemingly links much faster and more reliably than many ARQ modes used even today, but it's not as hardy a mode or as fast as the newer stuff. The Russians liked SITOR so much they devised their own modifications to it beyond 3rd shift Cyrillic and used it when everyone else had gone to other means. Now I suppose a lot of Russian MM traffic is via satphone text and voice.

CIS Naval Digital Modes


T600 (and derivatives, of wich there are several, some in use by other CIS forces) is the actual name for the modem, it's also called BEE and 36/50 by hobbyists

While a Baudot decoder will print on T600 sigs, it's not Baudot code so one needs a decoder crafted for T600.
Apparently T600 employs 3:4 encoding for error check, similar to SITOR in that respect. I suppose T600 is the most common CIS Navy digital (non cw) mode on hf.

Some of these T600 freqs are up continuously as a kind of channel marker, idling (looks like reversals to a Baudot decoder) until a message arrives, others only send when there is traffic, at H+10, 20, 30, 40 & 50:

Simulcast T600:
1. 10712, 11088, 15778, 16808, 20536, 22413
2. 5890, 9224, 11524, 14581, 16207, 19688, 19936
3. 14192, 16234 

RDL cw and T600:
(simulkeyed with 18.1) 3363, 3861, 4043, 4446, 4582, 4602, 5268, 5438, 6342, 6962, 7657, 7816, 8488, 8508, 9346, 10452, 10535, 11468, 12098, 12631, 12741, 13032, 14411, 14664, 15768, 15871, 16912, 17460, 18764, 19210, 20096, 22864 5.

The cw traffic is comprised of opchat between the ends of the link using mark or space as the cw carrier, normally taking place before, between, and/or after T600 traffic. This opchat may have interesting tidbits and is sole reason some monitors watch T600 channels.

RDL cw and T600:(simulkeyed with 21.1) 8130, 10164 6. 3196, 5846 7. 5178, 8436

Commonly heard in US;
14411, 14664, 16206, 16808, 17460

For an up to date list of T600 channels you will want to get the latest logs from udxf.io or similar hobbyist websites.
That being said, one of my goto T600 channels to watch as a prop indicator is 11039.

Rivet is a free to use decoder often used by hobbyists to decode CIS Navy digital traffic, and supports these modes;
Baudot (various speeds) : Used by amateurs , weather stations and other users.
CCIR493-4 : A HF selective calling mode
CIS36-50 (50 baud only currently) : Used by the Russian Navy.
CROWD36 : Used for Russian diplomatic and intelligence messages
FSK200/500 : Used for Russian diplomatic and intelligence messages
FSK200/1000 : Used for Russian diplomatic and intelligence messages
FSK (raw) : For advanced users to investigate unknown FSK modes
GW FSK (100 baud) : A commercial ship to shore data system.
XPA (10 and 20 baud) : Believed used for Russian intelligence messages.
XPA2 : Believed used for Russian intelligence messages.


- a signal of national communications "SHARK", used in the Navy. Suffice it to the old system, the transmission is encrypted, of the characteristics, the preamble begins with twice the "plus" in terms of duration, spacing is exactly equal to twice the speed of manipulation, and manipulation without breaking phase.

(Band Width)    ~1800 Hz
(Low Range)    ~500-600 Hz, SBB
(Baud Rate)    500 Hz
(Carriers)    2
(Shift)    1000 Hz
(RX mode)    SSB

Band Width)    ~900 Hz
(Low Range)    ~250-300 Hz, SBB
(Baud Rate)    500 Hz
(PSK Carriers)    2
(Shift)    500 Hz
(RX mode)    SSB
The above Akula info translated from the RUScanner webpage

Akula = shark in Rossii
The Akula modem is a phase coherent BFSK burst modem used by submarine and surveillance forces of the Russian Navy. I suppose the subs can either deploy a vertical from conning tower, towed buoy, or water jet antenna to send via, but 15kw on hf to a trailing wire antenna a meter or so below surface might do too.

The Akula-II modem is a complex, dual-channel Differential BPSK burst modem.
"Dolphin" is a minor variation of the Akula radio mode(s)
"Ishmael" and "Dnieper" was similar

Parse ASCII transparent charset and synchronous framing or raw bits to view transport and payload.
Akula ACF; 1356 2594 2713

Traffic has/may consist of 10 five-digit groups, time in the air - 0.72 seconds (in closed mode).
CIS Submarines have employed up to 15 kW output power in Akula mode.

Akula messages received by shore stations are instantly relayed to the CIC of the CIS Navy on all available communication channels. Akula has also been noted in use by surface "recon" ie surveillance units and might be a method used for transmitting emergency traffic of flash precedence by Akula equipped CIS Navy units.

Akula messages are copied via 135 radio reception centers of the CIS navy, keeping in mind submarine-related comms have highest priority in CIS Navy

A short BPSK burst is seen before BFSK Akula traffic commences, I presume this is indication Akula-II hardware is in use. I also presume Akula is based on WW2 German efforts to do the same thing, covertly send messages from submarines to HQ on hf;
However the kurier system was more or less just very fast morse, its main benefit in reducing the amount of time a signal was ota, thereby reducing chances of discovery and direction finding. The main problem with short duration hf comms, other than propagation, is  a noise burst can take out a portion of or entire short communications burst, not to mention bit smearing from multipath that will likewise also be present to one degree or another.

Buy you an Akula modem!

Akula product info;
"Information Transmission Device R-758IS (Akula)
General information

    Group of operation 2.3.1, 2.1.1, 2.2.1 GOST RV 20.39.304-98 (GOST RV 20.39.304-98 is somewhat akin to ACP and/or STANAG but for Rossii)
    Entering and correction of reports using the keyboard with control on the built-in display
    Creating and storing a list of standard reports
    Archiving of the transferred reports in non-volatile memory
    Built-in automatic self test system
    By connecting compatible with existing equipment

Power supply 220v with a frequency of 50/400 Hz
40W maximum power consumption
Weight 3.6 kg
Dimensions (width X depth, height), mm 220x285x75 (without shock absorbers)
Full appointed service life of 25 years
Warranty period of 5 years"

Speech Technology Center, LLC (Akula Manufacturers)
Year of foundation    1990

For contact    
196084, St. Petersburg, Krasutsky street, 4
Tel .: (812) 325-8848, Fax: (812) 327-9297
Website: www.speechpro.ru
E-mail: info@speechpro.com
Administration    Khitrov Mikhail Vasilyevich - General Director

Main activities    
development, production; sale; research activities

Own production    
multichannel digital black boxes P-424M and P-425M, installed on submarines, ships of the Navy and on airplanes;
Information Transmission Device R-758IS - preparation of data for the transmission of digital messages in the modes: "Shark", "Splav-Info", "Integral", "Splav P-608"; Morse Code Sensor (KM) - a mock-up sample that has been tested on ships of the Navy

Supplied Products    
multichannel digital black boxes P-424M and P-425M, installed on submarines, ships of the Navy and on airplanes;
Information Transmission Device R-758IS - preparation of data for the transmission of digital messages in the modes: "Shark", "Splav-Info", "Integral", "Splav P-608"

performing particularly complex phonoscopic examinations and studies
Speech Technology Center product "Integral" is the corresponding receiver/sensor for Akula modems.


This aging PSK/MFSK/OFDM modem is in use by CIS forces and is likely or has been replaced with newer and more capable equipment AT-3104. That being said, it's all over the spectrum in use by CIS Navy for the most part I presume the 3104 is backward compatible with 3004.
Traffic consists of text/data and encrypted voice.

Something to consider is that while elite CIS forces, submariners to flyboys, often get the newest and most advanced weaponry and electronics, elements farther back from the point of the spear have to make do with perhaps obsolescent and certainly older equipment, eventually as more advanced gear comes into the TOE (table of equipment) more units will be so equipped.
They've developed some neat gear, they just can't afford to make a lot of it right now.

This technology trickle down theory has always been the case apparently. For example, in the late 50s and early 60s as Akula was being developed and tested in the field, only certain subs got the equipment, no surface units had it until much later, like into the 90s. This likely coincided with the desire for CIS forces to fight war in a nuclear environment, meaning to be able to fight in a contaminated battlefield, and  have the equipment to enable one to do so.
This is one reason why the changeover from tube type electronics to solid state is slow in the going, as tube gear has a much greater tolerance to emp. Today I presume most electronics in CIS Navy use to be solid state, and to have emp protection devices and protocols in place to protect said solid state devices.

Today you can actually buy an Akula modem from the maker in Russia, so why not equip every unit with the best and newest at least for compatibility's sake? Perhaps Russia is counting on commercial orders to ramp up production of gear and hide the cost in the volume sold, kinda like having your enemy buy your weapons for you. Wonder what the world market for a hf burst modem is. Also from the pics they're not very small and are likely heavy, I suppose the waveform could be written into a pc app for tx/rx.

Testing and development of new systems, communications and weapons both, is taking place in actual combat in places like Syria, and I wouldn't be surprised to find it in use in the Yemeni/Saudi war. Slcms launched from CIS subs have overflown Iran to get to targets in Syria - a test and a message sent to the west at the same time. New tanks and antitank missile defense systems are being tested in Syria too.

Wouldn't come as a surprise to find the recent incidents where US warships went off course and ran into other shipping was due to CIS electronic warfare units testing new toys. Eastern Ukraine is also a testbed of CIS EW gear. Iran dropped a US drone and reverse engineered it because Russia gave them the means to capture the drone.

Stand by, more to follow.

« Last Edit: July 17, 2019, 1720 UTC by Josh »
Conveniently located near Vincennes Indiana.

Offline R4002

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Re: CIS Navy on HF
« Reply #4 on: July 10, 2019, 1414 UTC »
Very nice info, Josh.

Interestingly enough, 7630 kHz is also one of the nationwide/regional net frequencies for the Civil Air Patrol (listed as part of "Net 3" but part of their main HF-SSB channel lineup. 
U.S. East Coast, various HF/VHF/UHF radios/scanners/receivers

Online Josh

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Re: CIS Navy on HF
« Reply #5 on: July 11, 2019, 2103 UTC »
CAP and the Russian Pacific Fleet likely never bump heads, but it could happen if/when both ends are in darkness.

The most often propagating freqs for CIS Naval cw is 12464 (in use 0600 to 1800) before 1800Z and 8345 (1800 to 0600) after, some fool in Moscow messing things up for me. This timing is problematic as 12 is just starting to come in well when they switch to 8mHz wich often isn't propagating from there that early.

CIS Navy calls;
« Last Edit: July 12, 2019, 0031 UTC by Josh »
Conveniently located near Vincennes Indiana.